Frequently Asked Questions - BMC-IT

  1. How do I install Adobe CC Complete (Photoshop, Illustrator...) in Windows? [jump in page] 2018-06-11
  2. How do I take backup of the data on my computer? [jump in page] 2018-10-22
  3. Backing up via Rsync to Btrfs snapshots [jump in page] 2018-05-22
  4. How do I compare the content of two directories? [jump in page] 2018-06-04
  5. How do I buy a new computer? [jump in page] 2018-03-23
  6. What do I do with old computers or phones? [jump in page] 2018-08-29
  7. How do I connect to a file server via SMB on macOS? [jump in page] 2018-03-23
  8. How do I access my scans for eduPrint in Linux? [jump in page] 2018-06-04
  9. How do I set up eduPrint for a Linux server? [jump in page] 2018-06-04
  10. What is the cost for EndNote? What is Zotero? And Pages? [jump in page] 2018-10-15
  11. How do I convert EPS to PDF in Windows and macOS? [jump in page] 2018-06-04
  12. What is the point with the zone [jump in page] 2017-12-07
  13. GraphPad Prism, what does it cost? [jump in page] 2018-08-22
  14. How do snapshots in the HNAS file server work? [jump in page] 2017-06-22
  15. What is my IP-address and MAC-address? [jump in page] 2017-12-21
  16. How do I find the last updated file or the file with the longest file name? [jump in page] 2018-08-21
  17. Print using locked print on macOS [jump in page] 2017-08-16
  18. How do I change the Mac computer name, host name and NetBIOS-name? [jump in page] 2018-06-04
  19. How do I change default settings for a printer in macOS? [jump in page] 2018-05-23
  20. How do I add the Korint IPP printer in macOS? [jump in page] 2018-05-18
  21. Should I upgrade to the latest version of macOS? [jump in page] 2018-01-31
  22. How much memory does my Mac have? Can I get more? How much do I need? [jump in page] 2017-08-16
  23. How do I merge documents with Preview in macOS? [jump in page] 2018-01-10
  24. How do I find the serial number on macOS? [jump in page] 2017-11-22
  25. Should I upgrade to macOS Yosemite? [jump in page] 2018-05-18
  26. How does the reinstallation of Windows computers work at BMC-IT? [jump in page] 2018-11-13
  27. What should I think about when adding my own network printer? [jump in page] 2018-05-31
  28. How do I add a macOS printer at IMBIM? [jump in page] 2018-05-22
  29. How do I connect a private computer to the department network? [jump in page] 2018-03-23
  30. How do I install PyMOL? [jump in page] 2018-03-29
  31. How do I convert an image from RGB to CMYK? [jump in page] 2018-06-04
  32. There is a problem with my screen [jump in page] 2017-08-16
  33. How do I send mail from a shell script in Linux and macOS? [jump in page] 2018-06-04
  34. How do I sign my documents with an electronic signature? [jump in page] 2018-10-05
  35. I would like SPSS on my computer. [jump in page] 2018-05-30
  36. How do I use port forwarding and SOCKS-proxy in SSH? [jump in page] 2018-06-04
  37. We need more storage! Do you have a file server we can use? [jump in page] 2018-10-22
  38. How do I mount my home directory or shared storage at HNAS? [jump in page] 2017-12-06
  39. How to transfer web hosting for a domain [jump in page] 2018-06-04
  40. How do I install Ubuntu? [jump in page] 2018-09-06
  41. I have installed R in another location. How do I use it in a script? [jump in page] 2017-06-22
  42. How do I install anti-virus software on macOS? [jump in page] 2017-09-26

1. How do I install Adobe CC Complete (Photoshop, Illustrator...) in Windows?

For Windows computers that has a Zenworks agent it is quite easy.

  1. First restart computer if it has any pending upgrades. Otherwise the installation will fail.

  2. Open the Adobe Complete application in the Zenworks window.

  3. Answer OK once.

  4. Answer OK twice.

  5. Wait a very long time (all files are around 14.5 GB) for everything to install. The files are read from a file server so you have to be connected to the university network.

  6. It is possible to open a ZENworks progress window from the status bar. Step 7 of 8 will take a very long time.

Normally in Zenworks everything may be loaded over the Internet, but in this case, since the package is so large, for technical reasons we choose to install it directly from a file server.

When installing the bundle a request for registration of licenses will be automatically sent to who will confirm the registration at appropriate group or department.

For Windows computers that do not run the Zenworks agent, the same package can be installed by a system administrator. Also contact for this.

For macOS this installation is more or less manual. Contact

1. How do I take backup of the data on my computer?

Option 1: Keep all data on file server and let the system administrators take backup


Option 2: Keep all data on the computer and take backup on your own

Discuss with if you need advice in this or help buying extra hardware or order storage space on a file server.

2. Backing up via Rsync to Btrfs snapshots

BMC-IT is running a service for simple incremental file based backups to disk using Rsync and Btrfs snapshots. The service is used internally in BMC-IT for servers we do system administration for. You you can set up a similar system if you want to.

The service is documented in the SOP - Rsync backup to Btrfs snapshots.

hostname function OS hardware file system controller disks
neuro-l2 file server Scientific Linux 6 Supermicro 36 Ext4 XFS Areca ARC-1882 3×750GB 6x4x3TB 8x8TB 1xFree
bmc-esc2 backup Scientific Linux 6 HP Microserver G8 ZFS SATA 4x4TB
bmc-esc3 backup Scientific Linux 6 HP Microserver G8 ZFS SATA 4x4TB
bmc-t1 backup CentOS 7 Supermicro 24 Btrfs Areca ARC-1280 2xSystem 4x3TB 4x8TB 8x10TB 6xFree
bmc-t2 backup CentOS 7 Supermicro 24 Btrfs Areca ARC-1280 8x4TB 4x6TB 8x8TB
bmc-pcfs1 file server CentOS 7 Supermicro 36 Btrfs Areca ARC-1882 36x8TB
bmc-pcfs2 backup CentOS 7 Supermicro 36 Btrfs Areca ARC-1882 36x8TB
bmc-pcfs3 standby CentOS 7 Supermicro 36 Btrfs Areca ARC-1882 6x8TB 18xFree
bmc-pcfs4 file server CentOS 7 Supermicro 36 Btrfs Areca ARC-1882 36x8TB
bmc-pcfs5 backup CentOS 7 Supermicro 36 Btrfs Areca ARC-1882 36x8TB
bmc-t3 backup CentOS 7 Supermicro 24 ZFS Areca ARC-1280 24x2TB
bmc-t4 backup CentOS 7 Supermicro 24 ZFS Areca ARC-1280 24x2TB
fbv-neo file server Scientific Linux 6 Supermicro 24 Btrfs Areca ARC-1280 24x2TB
fbv-one standby CentOS 7 Supermicro 36 Ext4 Areca ARC-18xx -

3. How do I compare the content of two directories?

The build in tools diff, comm, find and sort in macOS and Linux can be used to compare two directories to see if anything is changed.

Let us assume the files are in the directories called directory1 and directory2.

Finding difference in content

For large datasets this will take some time because the content of all files will be read and compared.

diff -r directory1 directory2

Finding missing or added files

This will be faster because only the list of files and directories in the two directories are compared. The content is not compared. All file names that do not exist in both are printed.

comm -3 <(find directory1 -mindepth 1 | sort) <(find directory2 -mindepth 1 | sort)

This displays files and directories that are unique for directory1.

comm -23 <(find directory1 -mindepth 1 | sort) <(find directory2 -mindepth 1 | sort)

This displays files and directories that are unique for directory2.

comm -13 <(find directory1 -mindepth 1 | sort) <(find directory2 -mindepth 1 | sort)

4. How do I buy a new computer?

Short story

Contact BMC-IT at and describe what you need. We have prepared a couple of standard models.

Long story

Be aware of that Uppsala University is a government facility. This means we have to obey LOU, Swedish Public Procurement Act / Lagen om offentlig upphandling / SFS 2016:1145. This means we are not allowed to go down town in Uppsala to any shop and buy a computer. Or to any web-shop.

Please read the Procurement guide.

The university has a procurement division that have prepared a web site called Produktwebben with many different computers and models. Not all are appropriate to buy even if they are listed there. Technically any group/department can order from Produktwebben, but there may be other policies at the group/department, like wanting all computers to be pre-installed or of certain models to save time (and money). Please check first.

Please note! Contact your LocalIT first! Contact! If you do not know what you are doing and do not follow the procedures at your LocalIT / campus / department it is up to you to solve the problems this may create. It may not even be allowed.

Over time, some things have shown to be of extra importance when considering which computer to buy:

  1. The manufacturer should have at least three years support but up to five year support.
  2. The manufacturer should have next-business-day on-site-service. If the computer breaks down it is the responsibility of the manufacturer to come to us. We do not have to send the computer in to them via mail to fix it or pay for this service. This saves a lot of time and money.
  3. The computers should not be of cheapest consumer grade but built to work for a couple of years with replacement parts available. Usually all computers with three year support (or more) are not consumer grade.
  4. Windows Home edition is not supported. We prefer reinstalling computers with Windows Enterprise. Windows Pro may be acceptable if reinstalling is not possible.

At BMC-IT we have prepared some models that we find reasonable and have tested. This means we can quickly install them with operating system (multi language Windows Enterprise or macOS), all drivers, the department printers and common applications like Microsoft Office, Adobe Photoshop, Adobe Illustrator, Adobe Acrobat, EndNote, MATLAB, Symantec Endpoint Protection, ZENworks etc.

New odd PC models (like any PC model from produktwebben) that have not been tested first cannot be expected to be easily reinstalled right away. New Mac models are fine when running the latest macOS.

More information

You can read more about purchasing equipment here:
Purchase of goods and services
Direct Award Contracts (DACs)

5. What do I do with old computers or phones?

Why can I not leave everything at the electronic recycle room?

The storage (usually a hard drive or flash memory with permanent storage) in may contains software with licenses belonging to Uppsala University (Windows, Office, Adobe etc).

Sometimes the storage contains passwords (stored in Firefox, Safari, Internet Explorer, Outlook, Thunderbird etc), password hashes (kerberos keys in Windows, macOS etc) or private keys (PyTTY, OpenSSH etc).

Sometimes the drives also contains sensitive personal data or data of other sensitive nature.

Option one - give it to BMC-IT

  1. Please fill in the form Data deletion approval.
  2. Give the equipment to BMC-IT. We will either scrap it or try to reuse the parts. If it is not for scrapping or possible reuse we cannot store it.
  3. Report the equipment as scrapped in the department inventory.

Option two - scrap it right away

  1. Remove the permanent storage (hard drive, solid-state drive, flash or other). This may not be possible in all devices.
  2. Please fill in the form Data deletion approval.
  3. Give the storage to BMC-IT (or your Local IT).
    1. If the storage contain really sensitive data it will be sent to the Security and safety division or the facility they recommend.
    2. If the data is not as sensitive and the drive is meaningsful to reuse, we will erase the drive on the block level (killdisk) and then reuse it.
  4. Bring the equipment to the electronic recycle room at The Goods reception at BMC.
  5. Report the equipment as scrapped in the department inventory.

6. How do I connect to a file server via SMB on macOS?

  1. In the Finder, choose connect to server... from the menu.
  2. Enter server name and name of the share, in this example smb://

  3. Enter the Windows-domain USER, your username and your password A

    Problem and workaround with AD-connected macOS connecting to HNAS on some shares

    We have with macOS 10.12.6 had problems connecting to the HNAS service that he university in November 2017. By ignoring the Active Directory Kerberos but instead using old-school password maybe the problem go away. The way of fooling the Mac is to connect to the IP instead. Like this

    $ host is an alias for has address $

Another possible solution for this is to try using cifs instead of smb.

Just replace smb with cifs in the path. Read more about Cifs and SMB at Wikipedia.

7. How do I access my scans for eduPrint in Linux?

Where are the scans stored

The DFS-path to the directory where your scans are stored is smb:// This path works fine in macOS but may or may not work in Linux. An alternative path is smb://$/USERNAME. This path may change in the future, but for the moment (2017-12-01) it works.

At 2017-12-11 also the host exists but is hard to mount in Linux.

How to access them in Linux

Use smbclient to access your directory. But use your own username instead of mine. smbclient works like a very old school FTP-client if you remember those. It may be convenient because it is all in userspace.

smbclient -W USER -U jny25782 '//$/jny25782'

Works too:

smbclient -W USER -U jny25782 -I '///eduprintscan$/jny25782'

Or mount directly on the command line like this. Use your own username and password.

mount -t cifs -o username=jny25782,password=PASSWORDA,domain=user '//$/jny25782' /mnt/

You may exclude your password and be prompted instead. This works in Scientific Linux 6 (compatible with RHEL6) and CentOS 7 (compatible with RHEL7).

mount -t cifs -o username=jny25782,domain=user '//$/jny25782' /mnt/

The default settings in Ubuntu 17.10 do not work. Try SMB version 2.1 like this:

mount -t cifs -o username=jny25782,domain=user,vers=2.1 '//$/jny25782' /mnt/

8. How do I set up eduPrint for a Linux server?

Printing via mail (Scientific Linux, Ubuntu, Debian)

In this example the file FILE_TO_PRINT.pdf is sent to a fictive user.

echo "please print me" | mailx -r -a FILE_TO_PRINT.pdf

Printing via CUPS on Linux (Ubuntu 16.04 / 17.10) or macOS (10.12.6)

  1. Get the PPD.

    Download and save the PPD as /tmp/eduPrint-UU.ppd on your local computer. If you use another file name then change the commands below appropriately.

  2. Make sure you are using the Employee-ID accounts on the computer. The easiest way to assure this is to use the Active Directory, but it works as long as the names are identical.
  3. Configure the printer queue:

    sudo lpadmin -p eduPrint-UU -v lpd:// -P /tmp/eduPrint-UU.ppd -u allow:all -o printer-is-shared=false -E

  4. Set this as the default printer queue if you want:

    sudo lpadmin -d eduPrint-UU

  5. Print like this:

    lp -d eduPrint-UU HELLO.pdf

If you are using unique local user account names

You want to configure the print queue to use the correct user name.

lpadmin -p QUEUENAME -v lpd:// -P /tmp/eduPrint.ppd -u allow:LOCAL_USERNAME -o printer-is-shared=false -E

You can let everything printed on the computer go to a specific users queue.

lpadmin -p QUEUENAME -v lpd:// -P /tmp/eduPrint.ppd -u allow:all -o printer-is-shared=false -E

Please note that the environment variable CUPS_USER may be used instead of specifying a specific user. This may be used on a multi user system if the variable is set in the login scripts.

9. What is the cost for EndNote? What is Zotero? And Pages?

The current (2016-01-11) cost for EndNote X7 is 1376 SEK as a one-time cost, but please note, if you already have an older version of EndNote, an upgrade is only 781 SEK. EndNote is available for Windows and macOS.

Search Progdist at UU Reload

The University library regularly provides courses on the reference management software EndNote - but not EndNote basic.

EndNote basic is a free but limited version of EndNote. It does include EndNote integration in Word via a special plugin.

There are open source alternatives, for example Zotero and Mendeley which are free. They are not compatible with EndNote but may be used instead.

The University library regularly provides courses on the reference management software Zotero and Mendeley.

Pages is a Mac only application available in the Mac App Store. Some say it is great, but as usual, not directly compatible with neither EndNote nor Zotero.

10. How do I convert EPS to PDF in Windows and macOS?

Mac OS X

  1. Open in Preview.
  2. Save as PDF.


There seems to be no built in way to convert EPS to PDF in Windows.

Use Adobe Acrobat Pro.

  1. Open the file.
  2. Save as PDF.

Use some external service like Cloudconvert

  1. Upload file
  2. Download PDF
  3. If you want to import a vector image into Word then convert into EMF instead.

Linux (Ubuntu, CentOS etc) / Windows / macOS

The software ImageMagick can do this.

convert fish.eps fish.pdf

11. What is the point with the zone

The initiative for the domain was taken in 2015-05 by BMC in order to get an aliases to file server shares with unique names.

For example, the file server share is named with the TLA-SHARENAME, like INV-Common. Then the CNAME will be or pointing to the current file server where the share is located.

The reasoning behind this is the following:

  1. Get a unique name in DNS to each file server share. This will faciliate migration of file server shares to new servers.

    We (the university) had a lot of troubles with migration from the old NetApp file server to the new HNAS file servers. This zone with an extra level of abstraction in front of the real file server names was intended as a proactive way of eliminating one part of the problem in preparation for the next file server migration. It also makes it easier for those users users (research groups or department) that wish to or have to move their share from one storage system to another.

  2. Make it work for all operating systems. There is a function in the Microsoft Active Directory (with a similar goal) called the DFS that put all file server shares in a single name space. This however do not work all the time in all operating systems, like non-AD connected Windows-clients, macOS (not all of the time), Linux (it depends a lot on the configuration it do not work for example in Ubuntu out of the box).
  3. Network agnostic Get access to the servers even from other networks where needed when the USER-AD ( is not accessible due to using split DNS and access restrictions, like UAS, SLU, UPPMAX, HPC-centers in Sweden and maybe mobile data. It is also not a requirement to use the university resolvers, it should work even if the local resolvers are down.

12. GraphPad Prism, what does it cost?

GraphPad Prism is a commercial scientific 2D graphing and statistics software for Windows and macOS.

Perpetual license

Search Progdist at UU Reload

Send a message to for help with installing GraphPad Prism.

13. How do snapshots in the HNAS file server work?

The HNAS file server saves old versions of files so that any user can retrieve them.

The default snapshot time schedule looks like this: (2017-06-21)

In Windows open Properties of a file or folder and then in the Previous versions tab pick an appropriate version.

In macOS mount with an extra /~snapshot in the path to access the snapshots folders. Use your own university account instead of the example below.

Then enter the appropriate folder to search for the lost version.

14. What is my IP-address and MAC-address?

The easiest way to see what IP your computer or phone is currently using when contacting Internet is to go to a web page that displays it.

How to look up the local IP-address on different operating systems:

Your local IP-address may be translated into another external IP-address over a router using NAT (network address translation).

  1. macOS
  2. Linux
  3. Windows

1. macOS

On a Mac this is also displayed in System Preferences:

  1. Open the Network tab in System Preferences and go to active interface to see the IP-address. Example

  2. Open Advanced. The IP-address is displayed again.

  3. Check MAC-address in Advanced. Example a8:20:66:19:5b:b8

2. Linux

For Linux (or macOS) open a terminal and type ifconfig.

3. Windows

For Windows, open a command window and type ipconfig /all

Example: IP-address is and MAC-address is 08:00:27:27:06:ad

The command getmac also display the currently used MAC-address.

15. How do I find the last updated file or the file with the longest file name?

These tools work on Linux (Ubuntu/CentOS/etc) and probably on macOS too.

Finding the last updated file

Here is a way of displaying the last updated file.

bash$ find directory -type f -print0 | xargs -0 -P 1 stat --format '%Y :%y %n' | sort -nr | cut -d: -f2- | head

In this example the script is run in the files in this FAQ. This FAQ entry is the last one updated!
$ find .  -type f -print0 | xargs -0 -P 1 stat --format '%Y :%y %n' | sort -nr | cut -d: -f2- | head
2018-04-27 08:55:47.517999369 +0200 ./last.updated.file.txt
2018-04-27 08:54:07.277999790 +0200 ./last.updated.file.txt~
2018-04-27 08:51:50.658000281 +0200 ./compare.directories.txt
2018-04-26 15:40:44.030253321 +0200 ./compare.directories.txt~
2018-04-25 13:39:28.802347956 +0200 ./vlan.txt
2018-04-23 08:19:00.582125333 +0200 ./platform.txt
2018-04-20 16:01:09.194378641 +0200 ./serverroom.use.txt
2018-04-17 14:20:59.742186698 +0200 ./storage.txt
2018-04-13 13:28:04.770412453 +0200 ./spss.txt
2018-04-09 12:51:46.146083485 +0200 ./support.txt
$ _

Finding the file with the longest file name

This little script display the number of files in the current directory, the character length of the longest file name and the name of that file.
$ find directory1 | awk 'BEGIN{N=0} {N=N+1; if ( length > L ) { L=length ;s=$0 } }END{ print N" "L" "s }'
$ _

Here is an example running on the files in this FAQ. There are in total 219 files and the longest filename has 49 characters in the path which is ./

$ find . | awk 'BEGIN{N=0} {N=N+1; if ( length > L ) { L=length ;s=$0 } }END{ print N" "L" "s }'
219 49 ./
$ _

16. Print using locked print on macOS

  1. First you have to make sure you are printing using the driver made for the Ricoh printer. When adding a printer do not use AirPrint but the PostScript driver (the one ending with PS) at the Use: drop down menu.

  2. If you do not have any PostScript driver, you have to download it from Ricoh. The Ricoh homepage is a bit hard to link to, but go to for example enter the model number of the printer and download drivers.
  3. Then, when printing, enter Show details.

  4. In the drop down menu (currently showing Safari since I was printing from Safari) pick Job Log.

  5. In the Job Log settings, change Job Type: to Locked Print.

  6. Enter your settings - your username and a unique password.

  7. Print using these preset settings.
  8. Go to printer and enter the password to get the printer to print.

17. How do I change the Mac computer name, host name and NetBIOS-name?

In macOS, change the computer names in the system settings, in the Share (Delning) dialog.

The university name standard begins with an identifier for each department and then a dash and a unique identifier. At BMC-IT and the departments we support we continue with the computer serial number like this:

  1. Begin with a TLA - the three letter acronym (Neuroscience - INV, Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology - IMB, Pharmaceutical biosciences - FBV, Medical Cell Biology - MCB, Uppsala Biomedical Centre - BMC, Public Health and Caring Sciences - IFV, etc)
  2. Then a dash -.
  3. Then the serial number max 11 characters (cut away the leading ones to keep the usually significant ones)
  4. The full computer name should be 15 characters or less (to not generate possible problems in old network sharing protocols like WINS... In a couple of years, when WINS is totally gone, then this rule most probably can be ignored)

The host name is however picked up from the DHCP-server. It is used as a prompt in the command line. With dynamic DHCP the IP and the host name may change from time to time. So to get a consistent hostname set it manually like this; in this example BMC-COVFEFE is used as hostname, but please use your own instead!

The terminal may look like this:

$ scutil --get HostName HostName: not set $ sudo scutil --set HostName BMC-COVFEFE Password: $ sudo scutil --set ComputerName BMC-COVFEFE $ sudo scutil --set LocalHostName BMC-COVFEFE $ scutil --get HostName BMC-COVFEFE $ scutil --get ComputerName BMC-COVFEFE $ scutil --get LocalHostName BMC-COVFEFE $ _

Also check and set the NetBIOS-name. It may or may not be the same as the computer name and host name. The default is the same as the hostname but if this has been changed before it may be something else. Change it like this:

The NetBIOS-name can be changed in the terminal as well like this:

$ sudo defaults write /Library/Preferences/SystemConfiguration/ NetBIOSName BMC-COVFEFE $ defaults read /Library/Preferences/SystemConfiguration/ NetBIOSName BMC-COVFEFE $ _

18. How do I change default settings for a printer in macOS?

This can be done through the cups interface. Do this to change the default settings to duplex, black and white and options installed:

Enable cups interface

  • Enable the cups webinterface by starting the application "Terminal" (Applications/Utilities) and enter the command below, followed by Enter:

    You can copy the command here:

    cupsctl WebInterface=Yes

Change settings

Disable cups interface

19. How do I add the Korint IPP printer in macOS?

Run this command in a terminal.

lpadmin -p Korint-FollowPrint-IPP -P `dirname "$0"`/PPD/Korint-FollowPrint.ppd -v ipp:// -L "Uppsala University FollowPrint" -D "Uppsala University FollowPrint" -E

The -D option is the description. Read more at Korint homepage.

20. Should I upgrade to the latest version of macOS?

Find out what version of macOS / macOS your computer is able to run by entering your serialnumber on the Ultimate Mac Lookup, go to the webpage for your model and look at Maximum MacOS.

They also have a list of all mac models and the latest OS they can run.

In general you should upgrade your Mac to a new version of Mac OS X. We also recommend replacing a HDD (slow rotating Hard Disk Drive) with a SSD (faster Solid State Drive) when doing major upgrades if it is possible.

CPU model

To find the CPU model run this command in the terminal:

sysctl -n machdep.cpu.brand_string

Known problems

But other than that, go ahead. Most things work better. If you have any questions contact

21. How much memory does my Mac have? Can I get more? How much do I need?

  1. Go to the Apple menu and go to About this computer or Om den här datorn.

  2. Check Memory in GB too see what is currently have. Example with macOS Yosemite and 16 GB.

  3. Open the Memory tab to see how the memory banks are populated:

  4. The more memory the better:
    Memory Writing, Web browsing, Mail Running Virtual Machines with Windows Several Virtual Machines, MATLAB with large datasets, Photoshop with very large images, building large apps locally etc
    2 GB RAM Upgrade (works but very slowly - one task at a time) Upgrade (not possible) Upgrade (not possible)
    4 GB RAM Ok Upgrade (works but really slow hard to work in both at the same time) Upgrade (not possible)
    8 GB RAM Great Ok Upgrade (works but slow)
    16 GB RAM Great Great Ok
    32 GB RAM Great Great Great
  5. Find out what model you have. Example from above Mac mini (middle 2011)
  6. Send a message to Supply the following information:
    1. What model the Mac is (see above)
    2. How much memory it currently have (see above)
    3. What room it is in. (Check your room number above the door)
    4. Payment details. (The research group leader and research group name)
    5. Your contact information (phone number) unless it is in the university catalogue.
  7. As Local IT (or interested user) Go to a website with all Apple models and their memory upgrades. Here are two examples from two memory manufacturers:

    At EveryMac you can also see the highest version of the operating system that is possible to run.

  8. As Local IT: Buy memory via produktwebben.

    Please note, this is done by the Local IT. Do not do this unless you really know what you are doing. And then you are on your own if the memory do not fit or something else goes wrong.

  9. As Local IT: Install memory on the Mac.


  1. Reset the Mac parameter memory. After rebooting try and hold down these four keys together until it reboots again:
  2. Change the order of the memory physically. This may just clean the oxide from the connectors.
  3. Remove the memory modules, one at a time, and run the computer with the remaining memory to see of this solves the problem. Replace the faulty memory module.

22. How do I merge documents with Preview in macOS?

Apple has a guide on Use Preview to combine PDFs on your Mac.

This guide works on the latest macOS Sierra, I have not tried previous versions:

  1. Create a new copy of the first PDF-document you which to merge into (because Preview saves the result in the source).
  2. Open the copy of the first PDF-document in Preview.
  3. Open Finder and drag the second document below the last page of the first document.
  4. Close Preview. It will automatically save the document with the edits you made.

23. How do I find the serial number on macOS?

  1. Open Apple-menu and choose About this computer

  2. Here it is!

  3. For older macOS, double click on the version number to display the serial number.

  4. You can also find the serial number in the hardware section of System Information.

Read more at Apple: Find your Mac`s serial number in About This Mac or System Information

24. Should I upgrade to macOS Yosemite?

We do not recommend upgrades on computers older than 2011.

On computers with an third-party upgraded SSD, be aware that TRIM will stop working which may degrade performance.

Be aware that some programs may stop working, like old versions of Office and EndNote. Getting a new version of EndNote involves a cost. Office is free (not really, but the university already payed for it).

But other than that, go ahead. Most things work better. If you have any questions contact

25. How does the reinstallation of Windows computers work at BMC-IT?

These are instructions for installing Windows 7/8.1/10 x64 Enterprise via MDT 2013.

  1. Prepare installation
    1. Create USB flash drive
    2. Configuration for network boot
    3. Configuration of router filter
    4. Permissions for autojoin domain
    5. Hardware support
  2. Configure BIOS
  3. Starting install via USB flash drive
  4. Starting install via network
  5. Clearing partitions
  6. Continue with installing
    1. Select task sequence
    2. Fill in computer name and join domain
    3. Select applications
    4. Wait while installing
    5. Administrator password

Prepare installation

Create USB flash drive

  1. Get access to the installation directory through User-AD group bmc-autoadmin-group. Mail a mail to BMC-IT ( with your username and what you want.
  2. Get one or several 32 GB USB flash drives.
  3. Login on a Windows 10 machine with USB-ports as administrator.
  4. Insert the USB flash drives (max 4 at the same time) in Windows 7 machine.
  5. Start a command prompt as administrator cmd (use CTRL and SHIFT to run as administrator from the prompt in the start menu)
  6. Run command: net use n: \\\BMCIT-Common /user:user\account and login using your university account and password A.
  7. Run command: \\\BMCIT-Common\MDT\scripts\MDT_FormatUSB.cmd \\\BMCIT-Common\MDT\MDT-MediaMT

    This will format and erase all USB flash drives inserted in machine!

  8. Wait a long time. The faster the USB flash drives the better.
  9. Done!

Update USB flash drive

  1. If you already have done the above steps on a USB flash drive, you can choose to only update the USB flash drive by running command: \\\BMCIT-Common\MDT\scripts\MDT_FormatUSB.cmd \\\BMCIT-Common\MDT\MDT-MediaMT sync
    This will not format, just update the sticks with changed files.

Configuration for Network boot

For Windows DHCP it looks like this:

For ISC dhcpd it looks like this: from dhcpd.conf (this is using the central server)

 filename "bmc/pxelinux.0";
 next-server "";
/tftpboot/pxelinux.cfg/default (already done)
DISPLAY msgs/boot.msg

      MENU LABEL ^Local Boot (default)

LABEL mdtmt
  MENU LABEL Windows MDT LiteTouchPE x64
  KERNEL memdisk
  APPEND iso initrd=LiteTouchPE_x64.iso raw

/tftpboot/msgs/boot.msg (already done)
Displaying t from

 l        Local Boot (default)
 mdtmt    Windows 10 Enterprise x64

Pxelinux is coming from It is included in most Linux-distributions.

The LiteTouchPE_x86.iso is located at \\\BMCIT-Common\MDT\Boot\LiteTouchPE_x64.iso

Configuration of router filter

TFTP is using UDP. The request to the TFTP-server is sent on port 69/udp from any port. The TFTP-server at ( is using UDP source ports 6900-6999 for responding.

Open up UDP, both directions, from host to your clients. Usually this is all of your subnets. Send a request for this to

Permissions for autojoin domain

The account USER\bmc-autoadmin-mdt must at least have permission to Create Computer objects in the correct OU to be able to join automatically.

Hardware support

MDT 2013 based on Windows 10 have these requirements:

Microsoft has for Windows 8.1 dropped support for CPUs without the PrefetchW-feature. This includes the Pentium D 8xx CPUs hich are used in for example many Dell Optiplex GX620 desktops. So even if they have 4 GB RAM they cannot run the installation.

Some other Dell Optiplex with the slightly faster Intel Pentium D 9xx are working fine.

Check model with wmic csproduct get vendor, version

Configure BIOS

  1. Press F12 or F10 or whatever to enter BIOS. It depends on the computer model.

  2. To use UEFI-mode and install from USB flash drive, select:
    - Secure boot: OFF
    - SATA mode: AHCI (not RAID)
    - UEFI boot order: Deselect USB flash drive

  3. To use Legacy-mode and install from network, select:
    - Legacy option ROMs: ENABLED
    - Secure boot: OFF

Starting install via USB flash drive

  1. Press F12 or F10 or whatever it is to be able to select boot source. It depends on the computer model.
  2. Choose to boot via USB. Some older machines might be limited to boot from an USB2-port. USB3 might not work on older machines.
  3. Continue with installing.

Starting install via network

  1. Press F12 when starting machine to boot via Network. If the Network adapter do not show PXE-booting may have to be enabled in BIOS.
  2. Choose MDT-server by typing M D T M T and pressing ENTER

  3. This will boot the netinstallation ISO over TFTP.
    If it do not work, boot via USB flash drive instead.
  4. Continue with installing (next section below).

Clearing partitions

If the installation stops because of a previous installation attempt or if something else is weird with the partition table, previously created partitions may be cleared manually.
  1. Press F8 during installation to start a command prompt
  2. diskpart
  3. sel dis 0
  4. cle
  5. exit
Diskart can also be used for unmounting a drive:
  1. Press F8 during installation to start a command prompt
  2. diskpart
  3. list volume
  4. sel dis 0
  5. remove all dismount
  6. exit

Continue with installing

  1. Select task sequence:
    • W10E is the normal Win10 Enterprise x64 deploy.

  2. Fill in computer name. The new computer name standard is first three letters for institution, then a dash and the computer serial number. The serial number is automatically read from the computer BIOS.
    USER\bmc-autoadmin-for-mdt must be given privileges to create new computer accounts in the USER-AD.
  3. If you are using a Virtual Machine then name the computer TLA - VM USERNAME. For me at BMC withe the username jny25782 I would name my first virtual machine BMC-VMJNY25782.

  4. Select what applications or other packages to install during installation:

  5. Wait up to two hours, but normally 20-30 minutes while the computer is running MDT for installing OS and applications.
  6. For computers in USER-AD at BMC the local administrator password is set by a GPO to a unique hash for each computer. Any locally set password will be overwritten.

    Without the GPO SetLocalPassAsMD5 the password will be set to bytgenast which means that you are responsible to CHANGE PASSWORD when the installation is done.

    Currently the algorithm looks like this: The serial number is upper case, cut to 11 characters, and padded by zeroes until 12 characters length, and then a secret password is added. The following works at the command line at macOS or Linux to create the password.


    echo -n SERIAL000000SECRET | md5 | head -c 12

    Scientific Linux, Ubuntu etc:

    echo -n SERIAL000000SECRET | md5sum | head -c 12

26. What should I think about when adding my own network printer?

Be aware that the Uppsala University already have a central printing system currently called eduPrint. Getting your own printer is in general contra productive.

  1. The printer should in general be configured to use DHCP. In order for the printer to get an IP-address thne MAC-address should be added to the DHCP-server at the network. This is in general the central IPAM-system called Bluecat.
  2. Close down any older or unused protocols on the printer that are not in use, like telnet or FTP. No other services than those to be used should be open at the printer.
  3. Set up a local firewall on the printer and only let those networks that should be able to also be able to print directly onto the printer.
  4. Check that the manufacturer has working drivers or instructions for at least macOS, Windows and Linux (RHEL/CentOS).
  5. Check that the PostScript module is added to the printer. Double check this when the computer has arrived. This makes printing on macOS work better or at some models at all.
  6. For scanning purposes, use the central mail server called As a sender for the mail use the receivers own mail-address or create a special account for this. The sender must be accepted at the university mail servers. People receiving mail will eventually reply to this sender so the behaviour should be known - do not send everyting to a black hole for example.
  7. For searching use the catalogue LDAP-server at or maybe the Active Directory LDAP-servers at For the later an account is needed for access so create a function account for this.
  8. Set up logging for the printer to using the syslog protocol.
  9. Set up a unique password for the department printers. Make sure the default passwords are removed. Make sure the IT-support know about the passwords.
  10. Make sure to update the firmware on the printer regularly in order to follow normal security guidelines.

27. How do I add a macOS printer at IMBIM?

Imbim has new printers since 2018-03-22. Users with macOS clients need to reinstall the printers. Remove old Imbim printers before installing new ones. Depending on your macOS version, you may need to install a printer driver before installing the printer. See instructions below.

One of the old printers remains (D9:4). That printer can still be used as before, without any changes.

Important! You need to be connected to the Imbim network via cable to print using these printers. If you're not, use the central printing system for the university, eduPrint!

Remove an old printer
  • Click on "System Preferences..." in the Apple menu.
  • Click on "Printers & Scanners"
  • Click on the printer you wish to delete on the left side.
  • Click on the minus sign in the down left corner and click on "Delete Printer".
Install printer drivers
Install a new Imbim printer
Click on a link below to download an installation package for all or individual Imbim printers. Run the installation package by double clicking it and follow the on screen instructions. Change default settings for a printer
Select your computer's OS below to view instructions for how to change the default settings for a printer.

28. How do I connect a private computer to the department network?

The most common way to connect private computers to the university network is to use the wireless network Eduroam. Read more about Eduroam on the central university support pages. Printing is done via eduPrint.

Some departments allow connecting private computers directly on the department internal LAN, because it might be the only way to use the internal department printers not connected to eduPrint.

When that is the case, the following information is needed to be put in the inventory. Please send the answers in a mail (in the body (text) of the mail not as an attachment) to

  1. Full name of user and e-mail address
  2. Research group leader
  3. Serial number
  4. Computer name (hostname - what you are calling the computer)
  5. Computer manufacturer and model
  6. Operating system (Windows 10, macOS 10.12.6, Ubuntu 17.04 etc)
  7. Procurement date
  8. Name of anti-virus software
  9. Current firewall settings - enabled or disabled or something else? (Are there any open services on the computer? Please close any file shares, printers and similar services that are not needed and keep a password on those that must be open. No anonymous guest login should be possible for the services on the the computer.)
  10. Computer MAC-address on the LAN port
  11. Has the computer installed the latest updates for the operating system (Windows, macOS, Ubuntu etc) and major applications (Microsoft Office, Firefox, Google Chrome, anti-virus etc)?

The information is needed because the security division at Uppsala University must be able to trace security incidents, virus and similar activity. The university rules require every computer to run adequate anti-virus software. We also need too know if too old and insecure operating systems are being used (Windows XP) and who we should contact if there are any questions.

When the computer is registered it can be used on any network socket connected to the department network.

How to find some of this in Windows (type in command line)

  1. wmic csproduct get IdentifyingNumber
  2. hostname
  3. wmic csproduct get name
  1. getmac
    ipconfig /all (find the physical address for the ethernet adapter)

How to find some of this in macOS (type in command line)

  1. ioreg -l | grep IOPlatformSerialNumber (Also see How do I find the serial number on macOS? )
  2. hostname
  3. sysctl hw.model
  4. sw_vers -productVersion
  1. ifconfig en0 | grep ether

29. How do I install PyMOL?

PyMOL is computer software, a molecular visualization system created by Warren Lyford DeLano.
Read about PyMOL at Wikipedia.

Commercial version

First option is to buy the commercial version. Read the PyMOL - Academic and Non-Profit Price List. The current price at 2018 is 99 USD/year.

Open source version

The source code is available (not all features but usually good enough). You can download the source and install your self.

There are prepackaged solutions, either with prebuilt binaries or from source.

  1. Linux install
  2. macOS install
  3. Windows install

Status of PyMOL on macOS

For macOS we have tried (at 2018-03-28) the MacPorts, Homebrew and Fink distributions of PyMOL. Only PyMOL in Fink works. The MacPorts and Homebrew distributions of PyMOL are broken. This may change.

Other software

Also take a look at UCSF Chimera or read about UCFS Chimear on Wikipedia.

UCSF Chimera (or simply Chimera) is an extensible program for interactive visualization and analysis of molecular structures and related data, including density maps, supramolecular assemblies, sequence alignments, docking results, trajectories, and conformational ensembles.

30. How do I convert an image from RGB to CMYK?

The software ImageMagick can do this. This can also be done in Photoshop and other tools. But ImageMagick works in both Windows, macOS and Linux (Ubuntu etc) and also has an interface in plenty of programming languages. And it is free.

  1. As an example we have a small sRGB PNG.

    $ identify start.image.png start.image.png PNG 448x54 448x54+0+0 8-bit sRGB 4101B 0.000u 0:00.009 $

  2. First convert the sRGB PNG into a sRGB TIFF.

    $ convert start.image.png start.image.tiff $

  3. Then convert the sRGB TIFF into a CMYK TIFF.

    $ convert start.image.tiff -colorspace CMYK output.image.tiff $

  4. Confirm that the resulting image is a CMYK TIFF.

    $ identify output.image.tiff output.image.tiff TIFF 448x54 448x54+0+0 8-bit CMYK 2376B 0.000u 0:00.000 $

The command line tool seems to work fine in Windows as well:

31. There is a problem with my screen

Regarding Apple products:

  1. About LCD display pixel anomalies for Apple products released in 2010 and later
  2. About LCD display pixel anomalies for Apple products released before 2010

Different type of problems:

Here are examples of screen problems picked from HP support. Visit their excellent guide for further information. Here are some highlights.

The screen is unsharp or stretched.

It may be so that the computer resolution do not match the screen resolution.

  • Restart computer
  • For Windows, change screen resolution to the one recommended for the screen by right clicking on background and pick the correct one.

  • For macOS, open system preferences and the screen tab and change resolution to the one recommended for the screen.

Some pixels are dead.

The vendors usually have certain amount of allowed dead pixels on a screen. In practice one often have to live with it if the number is low.

There are vertical or horizontal lines permanently on the screen.

This is a hardware problem that cannot be fixed without replacing the screen.

The screen is bleeding along the edges or corners

  1. This is a hardware problem that cannot be fixed without replacing the screen or parts of the screen. If it is really bothering then get a new screen.
  2. For old thick CRT-screens disconnecting the screen over the night could help. However, for modern LCD/LED-screens we have still not heard that that should help.

On Mac, colors in the background is bleeding through front window

The Yosemite GUI introduces transparency for window. For example here in Safari top of window (red) and right side (brown):

Fix by activating Reduce transparency in Accessibility preferences.

32. How do I send mail from a shell script in Linux and macOS?

Here is an example of sending mail on Linux and MacOS, one using sendmail and one using mailx.

The sendmail binary may be both in /usr/sbin/sendmail and the traditional /usr/lib/sendmail but using the /usr/bin/env as a wrapper should work with both location.

Please note that both the envelope header and the from-header must be set. This is done with sendmail both inside the mail and as a command line argument. There are other ways of doing this. But this is one of them. SUBJECT="This is in subject" /usr/bin/env sendmail -f $FROM $TO <<EOF To: $TO From: $FROM Subject: $SUBJECT Hello darkness my old friend! EOF SUBJECT="This is in subject" /usr/bin/mailx -s "$SUBJECT" -r $FROM $TO <<EOF Hello darkness my old friend! EOF

33. How do I sign my documents with an electronic signature?

  1. Introduction
  2. Read also
  3. Installation of Adobe Acrobat DC
    1. macOS
    2. Windows
  4. Create and sign with a self-signed electronic signature

1. Introduction

Please note that this guide allow you to create and sign with a self-signed certificate. Signing a document with this self-signed certificate will not prove that you are the one creating the signature since anyone can create a signature with your name. It is more or less the same safety as a normal signature.

2. Read also

3. Installation of Adobe Acrobat DC

If you read this and get IT-support from another organisation at UU then please mail your own helpdesk or local IT-support.

3.1 macOS

Acrobat Reader DC works fine and is free.

To get Adobe Acrobat Standard/Pro DC installed you can send a mail to

When you have ordered either Adobe Acrobat Pro 2017 or Adobe Creative Cloud for Teams - All Apps the icons will pop up in Managed Software Center. Go ahead and install.

3.2 Windows

Acrobat Reader DC is free and works fine.

Acrobat Pro is included in Adobe All Apps and or can be installed by itself.

Please ask to get Acrobat for guidance.

4. Create and sign with a self-signed electronic signature

  1. Open your PDF-document
  2. Go to the top menu Tools

  3. Go to Certificates

  4. Choose Digitally sign

  5. Now accept to pick an area where to sign and choose OK

  6. This is the first time so we must create a new digital ID by Configure Digital ID

  7. We want to Create a new digital ID and Continue. Pick the Create your own self-signed Digital ID option and then choose Continue. This means this can be easily forged, but lets assume this is what we want to do.

  8. Choose Save to File and then Continue. You can then bring the certificate with you if you want to as a file.

  9. Fill in your details and Continue

  10. Pick a new unique password and Save

  11. Choose to sign with your new certificate and Continue

  12. Enter your password and Sign

  13. Pick a new name for your document and Save

  14. View your signed document

Getting a personal certificate

  1. Please follow the instructions regarding Personal certificate at Medarbetarportalen to get your own personal certificate.
  2. Import it into (for example) Firefox.
  3. Export it from (for example) Firefox into an .p12 file. Set a password.
  4. When you sign with Acrobat, import the certificate from the file.
  5. That's it.

34. I would like SPSS on my computer.

The current cost 2018-04-12 for SPSS is 1500 SEK/year/user. The license is per user.

Search Progdist at UU Reload

This is how to install SPSS in Windows via ZENworks and trigger license registration

  1. Open ZENworks application window and click on the SPSS 22 icon.

  2. Accept the costs involved with license registration.

  3. Wait a while for the installation to complete.

  4. You can now start SPSS from the Start menu.

35. How do I use port forwarding and SOCKS-proxy in SSH?

Let us assume that there is a service on a server listening to a local port 8787.

Port forwarding using PuTTY in Windows

"c:\Program Files (x86)\PuTTY\putty.exe" -L 8787:localhost:8787

PuTTY can of course also be configured using the GUI.

Port forwarding using OpenSSH in Linux and macOS

ssh -L 8787:localhost:8787

SOCKS-proxy using PuTTY in Windows

Also be aware that you can use PuTTY and OpenSSH as a SOCKS-proxy which can be used to access arbitrary ports.

"c:\Program Files (x86)\PuTTY\putty.exe" -D 9999

SOCKS-proxy using OpenSSH in Linux and macOS

ssh -D 9999

Acessing the SOCKS-proxy from the web browser

Let your web browswer be configured to use this SOCKS-proxy.

Firefox is configured in Preferences, General and Connection Settings like this:

Chrome can be started with the SOCKS-proxy as a command line argument. This example is in macOS:

open /Applications/Google\ --args --proxy-server="socks5://localhost:9999"

Will it work?

Then start the web browser and go to a web page which displays where you are connecting from.

You can go to What is my IP-address and MAC-address? in this FAQ or perhaps Here I have connected to UPPMAX over SSH and proxied my browser via that server.

36. We need more storage! Do you have a file server we can use?

UUIT HDS NAS file server (HNAS)


The university has a common file server service run by IT-division running Hitachi NAS called file area (filarea)

In general order by contacting IT-division or contact if your department is already using the service.

BMC-IT PC file server (PCFS)


The PC file server storage service is a cost-efficient storage solution for mostly high volume archive data. It is built of commodity PC hardware (which means the hardware can be replaced with equipment from other vendors) and open source software (no hidden costs or support agreements). This gives us freedom and a low price but it also means that we are on our own.

The concept is from around 2010 where it was used for two departments. The service was originally built in 2016 for users at BMC who do not have to own their storage but since it is self-sustained it may be used by everyone at the university.

The setup is fully documented in SOP - Install PC file server, SOP - Common service PC file server and SOP - Rsync backup to Btrfs snapshots. This means you can set up a very similar setup using the same concept on your own if you want to.

Order by contacting BMC-IT at

RBL-IT EMC Isilon file server (Argos)


(The KRT-value 332 requires Gold-level.)

Everyone at the university may use the Rudbeck-IT file servers running EMC Isilon. Technical Specifications Guide - Dell EMC Isilon OneFS and IsilonSD Edge.

For ordering please contact RBL-IT with this information:

Connect use Windows: \\\MyGroups$

Connect use Mac OSX: smb://$


Uppmax has storage which is free if you have applied for and been granted resources. Please go to to figure out what UPPMAX can do for you.

37. How do I mount my home directory or shared storage at HNAS?

For Windows clients in USER-AD your home directory and the department common (public) share will automatically be mounted when you login using the drive letters below.

This storage is in the university shared HNAS file server. Some departments also have other storage available - contact for details.

  1. Please select your department:

    Biomedical Centre Campus Management
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology
    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology
    Department of Medical Cell Biology
    Department of Neuroscience
    Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences
    International Science Programme (ISP)
    . . .
  2. Please enter your username here:

    PurposePlatformDFS-pathDirect path Driver letter
    Home directory for personal files Windows \\\BMCI\TLA-Users\account \\\TLA-Users$\account X:
    Mac smb:// smb://user\$/account
    Common (public) share for department,
    research groups etc.
    Windows \\\BMCI\TLA-Common \\\TLA-Common$ P:
    Mac smb:// smb://user\$
  3. Sometimes you want to mount via the command line.

    • Windows, command line version on mapping a network share:
      net use x: \\\TLA-Users$\account /user:user\account
    • macOS, command line version on how to connect to a file server:
      mkdir ~/Desktop/account
      mount_smbfs //user;$/account ~/Desktop/account
    • On Linux, command line version on how to mount a CIFS file system:
      mkdir ~/Desktop/account
      sudo mount -o username=account,domain=user -t cifs //$/account ~/Desktop/account
  4. Also read in the SOP - Connect a Mac to HNAS (v1.0).pdf or follow the links to other FAQs above on how to use the Windows Explorer or Mac Finder GUI. Remember to use the VPN if you are connecting from outside the university network.

    Connect from Mac

    Problems with accessing the shared folders

    A common problem may be that your account has not got the correct permissions called group membership in AKKA, the university catalogue. Please then contact your department administration to get this fixed.

38. How to transfer web hosting for a domain

  1. Add the correct virtual host to the webserver
  2. Check to whom the mail to change in DNS should be sent
  3. Send a mail to domainmaster and request the change

Step 1. Add the correct virtual host to the webserver

In order to get the new webserver to respond the new name. Usually one must must add the virtual host to the web server configuration.

Check that the new service is working at the new host. Change the the hosts-file on a client computer. On Ubuntu (Linux) and macOS it is called /etc/hosts and Windows %SystemRoot%\system32\drivers\etc\hosts usually c:\windows\system32\drivers\etc\hosts.

If the webserver is called and will be moved to the new IP-address then add the following line:

Or if you wish to use both and you need to put them both in the hosts-file:

Now restart the local webbrowser (Firefox, Internet Explorer etc) and open the website ( Your webbrowser will now contact the new IP-address (picked from the hosts-file).

If the website has two names ( and, you need to test them both.

If the the web browser shows an page like this you need to activate the web site on the new web server. If you run Apache you need to create the correct VirtualHost. Contact the responsible person for the webserver or the web site and let them fix the problem before you proceed.

When everything is OK proceed to the next step. Also, remember to remove your changes to your hosts-file.

Step 2. Check to whom the mail to change in DNS should be sent

Then check the SOA field of the domain. The SOA record contain information on what what the contact person is for the domain. When querying for SOA also authoritative nameserver may be shown.

Use the command Dig for this. Dig is included in macOS and Linux and may be downloaded for free for Windows.

The output may look like this:

$ dig soa ; <<>> DiG 9.4.3-P3 <<>> soa ;; global options: printcmd ;; Got answer: ;; ->>HEADER<<- opcode: QUERY, status: NOERROR, id: 35450 ;; flags: qr rd ra; QUERY: 1, ANSWER: 1, AUTHORITY: 4, ADDITIONAL: 7 ;; QUESTION SECTION: ; IN SOA ;; ANSWER SECTION: 14400 IN SOA 2015021900 3600 600 2592000 1800 ;; AUTHORITY SECTION: 1078 IN NS 1078 IN NS 1078 IN NS 1078 IN NS ;; ADDITIONAL SECTION: 13974 IN A 13974 IN AAAA 2001:6b0:b:242:130:238:7:10 13974 IN A 13974 IN AAAA 2001:6b0:b:215:130:238:4:133 13974 IN A 13974 IN AAAA 2001:6b0:b:732:130:238:164:6 13974 IN A ;; Query time: 4 msec ;; SERVER: ;; WHEN: Fri Feb 27 17:43:03 2015 ;; MSG SIZE rcvd: 304 $ _

There are two interesting things in this output.

  1. The contact person is The first unescaped . (dot) in the field is substituted to an @.
  2. There are DNS-servers on

Step 3. Send a mail to domainmaster and request the change

The main part of the mail may look like this:

To: From: Subject: change webserver Hello, Please make a CNAME to like this: IN CNAME Kind regards, My contact information

Or, if you wish to change both and it may look like this with only IPv4 addresses.

To: From: Subject: change webserver Hello, Please remove the old A-record for and any record for Add the following: IN A IN A IN A IN A Kind regards, My contact information.

If you have any questions contact or

39. How do I install Ubuntu?

This is documentation for a network installation of Ubuntu on the BMC network using the BMC-IT network boot menu over PXE. This applies to physical PCs or VirtualBox.

You can always do a manuall installation. Just download the DVD from Ubuntu and install. Skip a few steps in the instructions below.

  1. Netboot the computer, usually by pressing F12 at BIOS boot time.
  2. In the PXE-boot men, start the latest and greatest Ubuntu installation. For example start a text installation of Ubuntu 18.04 Bionic Beaver x64 Mini:

    l Local Boot (default) m Memtest86 mdtmt Windows 10 Enterprise x64 (Mediatek network) c74 CentOS 7.4 x64 Netboot c73iso CentOS 7.3 x64 Minimal ISO debian74 Debian Netinstall 7.4 AMD64 sl65 Scientific Linux 6.5 x64 sl65kick Scientific Linux 6.5 x64 kickstart u1604live Ubuntu 16.04 "Xenial Xerus" x64 Mini Remix Live u1704mini Ubuntu 17.04 "Zesty Zapus" x64 Mini u1710mini Ubuntu 17.10 "Artful Aardvark" x64 Mini u1804mini Ubuntu 18.04 "Bionic Beaver" x64 Mini boot: u1804mini_

  3. Step through the text installation. Activate automatic updates.
  4. Please name the computer TLA-SERIALNUMBER where TLA is your department unique three letter ancronym and SERIALNUMBER is the computer serial number.
  5. If you want to keep the Windows installation, if there is one on the computer, you can resize the existing partitions.
  6. You can choose several different desktop environments, but I recommend to begin with the standard Ubuntu desktop. This is how the Xubuntu desktop looks like in VirtulaBox running in macOS:

Installing in VirtualBox

If you install in VirtualBox, remember to install the VirtualBox Guest Additions to enable shared clipboard and files between the host and guest OS.
  1. The CD is mounted automatically by VirtualBox. If everything works fine Ubuntu will find the CD and ask you for permission to install the guest additions. Just go ahead.
  2. Otherwise, tro to mount the CD via the menu in VirtualBox with Devices - Insert Guest Additions CD image.... Continue as above.
  3. And finally if the autorun does not execute but the CD has been mounted, you can manually run the installation:
    cd /media/jerker/VBOXADDITIONS_4.3.28_1003095
    sudo ./

40. I have installed R in another location. How do I use it in a script?

If you are running macOS or Ubuntu and have installed R in for example in /opt/local64/R/3.1.1/ and have /opt/local64/R/3.1.1/bin in your path would like to write scripts that use this location, and any other location where you install new versions of R, you may use /bin/env to start R.

The general idea in Unix is that the operating system and the packaging system install software in /bin and /usr/bin. The user install for a local system manually in /usr/local/bin. Shared software over a distributed file system (NFS, Lustre, CepFS..) usually resides in /sw /opt /srv. A packaging system external to the OS (like MacPorts) usually resides in /opt/local.

$ which R
$ cat >test.r <<EOF
> #!/bin/env Rscript
> print('hello')
$ cat test.r
#!/bin/env Rscript


$ chmod +x test.r
$ ./test.r
[1] "hello"
$ _

41. How do I install anti-virus software on macOS?

Contact for advice.

All computers have to run adequate anti-virus software according to the rules at Uppsala University.

We recommend Symantec Endpoint Protection (SEP). Licenses for this are in most cases payed for by the department, but you must notify BMC-IT if you install on your own so that we know what is going on. Notify BMC-IT by mailing to

The server is run by Polacksbacken campus for the whole of the university for those who like to cooperate on this.

For this to work your computer host name must follow the Uppsala University naming scheme. This is first a three-letter-ancronym for the department, then a dash and then your serial number (or some unique identifier, if not using your serial number let us know) so that when we receive a warning we can identify the computer. As an example, a computer may be named BMC-07JD0NADJD3.

How to install

First the preparation:

  1. Make sure your computer host name follow the Uppsala University naming scheme.
  2. Notify BMC-IT what you are doing by mailing Send the name of the computer.
  3. You must be located on the Uppsala University network or connect via VPN.

Then the actual installation:

  1. Open the server smb:// in Finder
  2. Open Public
  3. Open Public Installation Files
  4. Open Symantec_Endpoint_Protection_version_14.0.2332.0100_English for Mac (ANG) Pick the directory with this or the latest version number!
  5. Download Symantec_Endpoint_Protection_version_14.0.2332.0100_English.pkg by copying it to your local computer (for example the Desktop). Pick the package with this or the latest version number!
  6. Open the package and do the installation.
  7. Reboot computer.
  8. Start application Symantec Endpoint Protection and make sure it is working as it should.

This documentation is covered by GNU Free Documentation License.